Everyone’s heard of diabetes. It’s one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and rates are still on the rise. Yet most people don’t fully understand what causes it or how it affects everyday life. Many think that because the disorder is so widespread, it isn’t serious. But if left untreated, diabetes can lead to heart disease, vision loss, and even limb amputation.
At its most basic, diabetes mellitus (the official name) is a group of disorders that cause people to have higher-than-normal levels of sugar—or, glucose—in their blood. Glucose comes from the protein, carbohydrates, and fats that you eat and drink, as well your liver, which makes and stores the substance.
If everything is going according to plan, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin that helps move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of your body to be used for energy. But if your body is resistant to insulin, or doesn’t make enough of it, the glucose gets stuck hanging out in your blood. That’s when your doc will tell you that you have “high blood sugar.” As time goes on, the extra sugar in your blood causes inflammation and other major health troubles.